1. Product and Company Identification
Product Name: PROPANE
Chemical Formula: C3H8
Trade Name: Propane, Technical Grade
Propane, Instrument Grade
Colour coding: Propane, Technical Grade
Propane, Instrument Grade
Silver (Plascon 720/022) body with a Red (A11) circle, 250 mm dia, below the valve
Dulux Light Weatherwork Grey body with a Red (A11) shoulder
Valves: OMECA – Brass 5/8 inch BSP left hand female for all the above grades (Vapour outlet).
¼ inch flare for liquid withdrawal on Propane, Pure cylinders
2. Composition/Information on Ingredients
Chemical Name: Propane
Chemical Family: Paraffins
CAS No.: 74-98-6
UN No.: 1978
ERG No.: 115
Hazchem Warning: 2 A Flammable gas
3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
Main Hazards: All cylinders are portable gas containers. The hazards due to the handling of Propane stem mainly from its extreme flammability. The flammability limits in the air are between 2,2 and 9,5% by volume.
Adverse Health: Propane has some degree of anaesthetic action effects and is mildly irritating to the mucous membranes and/or acts as a simple asphyxiant.
Chemical hazards: None. Propane is a stable gas.
Biological Hazards: No known effect
Vapour Inhalation: Propane is non-toxic. Prolonged inhalation could have an anaesthetic effect. Since it can displace oxygen in the air it could also act as a simple asphyxiant.
Eye contact: Gas - No known effect
Liquid - Could cause frostbite
Skin contact: Gas - No known effect
Liquid - Could cause frostbite
Ingestion: Not likely, however the liquid could cause frostbite.
4. First Aid Measures
If the subject is conscious, he should be taken to an uncontaminated area and inhale fresh air or oxygen. In the event the subject is overcome by a massive exposure, he should be carried to an uncontaminated area and given artificial respiration and oxygen simultaneously. Treat symptomatically thereafter. In case of skin contact with liquid propane, frostbite may develop. If frostbite occurs, cover the frost-bitten part with a warm hand or woollen material. If the fingers or hand are frost-bitten, have the victim hold his hand in his armpit, next to his body. Then place the frost-bitten part in warm water, about 42ºC. If warm water is not available, or impractical to use, wrap the affected part gently in blankets. Let the circulation re-establish itself naturally. Encourage the victim to exercise the affected part while it is being warmed.
5. Fire Fighting Measures
Extinguishing media: Do not extinguish fire unless the leakage can be stopped. Do not use water jet. Use dry chemical, CO2 or foam.
Specific hazards: The rupturing of cylinders or bulk containers due to excessive exposure to a fire could result in a BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion), with disastrous effects. As the flammability limits in the air for Propane are between 2,2 and 9,5%, extreme care must be taken when handling leaks.
Emergency actions: If possible, shut off the source of the spillage. Evacuate area. Post notices, “No naked lights – No Smoking.” Prevent liquid or vapour from entering sewers, basements and workpits. Keep cylinders or bulk vessels cool by spraying with water if exposed to a fire. If tanker has overturned, do not attempt to right or move it. CONTACT THE NEAREST AFROX BRANCH.
Protective clothing: Self-contained breathing apparatus. Safety gloves and shoes, or boots, should be worn when handling containers.
Environmental precautions: Vapourised propane gas is heavier than air and could form pockets of oxygen deficient atmosphere in low-lying areas
6. Accidental Release Measures
Personal precautions: Do not enter any area where Propane has been spilled unless tests have shown that it is safe to do so.
Environmental precautions: The danger of widespread formation of explosive propane/air mixtures should be taken into account. Accidental ignition could result in a massive explosion.
Small spills: Do not extinguish the fire unless the leakage can be stopped immediately. Once the fire has been extinguished, and all spills have been stopped, ventilate the area.
Large spills: Stop the source if it can be done without risk. Contain the leaking liquid with sand or earth, or disperse with special water/fog spray nozzle. Allow to evaporate. Take the precautions as listed above under “Emergency Actions”. Restrict access to the area until completion of the clean-up procedure. Ventilate the area using forced draught if necessary. All electrical equipment should be flameproof.
7. Handling and Storage
Cylinders containing Propane should only be handled and stored in the vertical position. Cylinders should never be rolled. Do not allow cylinders to slide or come into contact with sharp edges and they should be handled carefully. Ensure that cylinders are stored away from other oxidants. Comply with all local legislation. Keep out of reach of children.
8. Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
Occupational: As vapourised Propane is a simple asphyxiant, exposure hazards avoid any areas where spillage has taken place. Only enter once testing has proved the atmosphere to be safe.
Engineering control measures: Engineering control measures are preferred to reduce exposures. General methods include forced draught ventilation, separate from other exhaust ventilation systems.
Ensure that sufficient fresh air enters at, or near, floor level. Ensure that all electrical equipment is flameproof.
Personal protection: Self-contained breathing apparatus should always be worn when entering area where oxygen depletion may have occurred. Safety goggles, gloves and shoes or boots should be worn when handling containers.
Skin: Wear loose-fitting overalls, preferably without pockets.
9. Physical and Chemical Properties
Chemical Symbol: C3H8
Molecular Weight: 44,10
Specific volume @ 20°C & 101,325 kPa: 547 ml/g
Autoignition temperature: 480°C
Relative density (air = 1): 1,55
Flammability limits in air: 2,2 - 9,5% (by volume)
Critical temperature: 96,67°C
Odour: Ethyl mercaptan added
For Pure grade the odour is pleasant.
10. Stability and Reactivity
Conditions to avoid: The dilution of the oxygen concentration in the atmosphere to levels which cannot support life. The formation of explosive gas/air mixtures.
Incompatible materials: Any common, commercially available metals may be used with commercial (or higher) grades of propane because it is non-corrosive, though installations must be designed to withstand the pressures involved and must comply with all state and local regulations.
Hazardous Decomposition Products: Propane is relatively stable. However, on combustion, toxic compositions, typically carbon monoxide may be formed, depending on conditions.
11. Toxicological Information
Acute Toxicity: TLV 800 ppm
Skin & eye contact: No known effect.
Chronic Toxicity: No known effect.
Carcinogenicity: Severe cold burns can result in carcinoma
Mutagenicity: No known effect.
Reproductive Hazards effect: No known
(For further information see Section 3, Adverse health effects)
12. Ecological Information
Vapourised Propane is heavier than air, and can cause pockets of oxygen-depleted atmosphere in low-lying areas. It does not pose a hazard to the ecology, unless the gas/air mixture is ignited.
13 Disposal Considerations
Disposal Methods: Disposal of Propane, as with other flammable gases, should be undertaken only by personnel familiar with the gas and the procedures for disposal. Contact the supplier for instructions. In general, should it become necessary to dispose of Propane, the best procedure, as for other flammable gases, is to burn them in a suitable burning unit available in the plant. This should be done in accordance with appropriate regulations.
Disposal of packaging: The disposal of cylinders must only be handled by the gas supplier.
14. Transport Information
UN No.: 1978
ERG No: 115
Hazchem warning: 2 A Flammable gas
Label: Flammable gas
ICAO/IATA Code: 1978
Packaging group: None
Maximum quantity allowed
15. Regulatory Information
Supplement to Sans 10234:2008
Annex A Index No. 608-011-00-8
Hazard & Precautionary statement codes
H220: Extremely Flammable Gas
P210: Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/ hot surfaces – NO SMOKING ( Manufacture, supplier or the competent authority to specify ignition sources)
P377: Leaking gas fire: Do not extinguish unless leak can be stopped safely
P381: Eliminate all ignition sources if safe to do so
P403: Store in a well-ventilated place
16. Other Information
Handbook of Compressed Gases - 3rd Edition
Matheson. Matheson Gas Data Book - 6th Edition
Supplement to SANS 10234 – List of classification and labelling of chemicals in accordance with Globally Harmonized System (GHS)
Exclusion of Liability
Whilst AFROX made best endeavour to ensure that the information contained in this publication is accurate at the date of publication, AFROX does not accept liability for an inaccuracy or liability arising from the use of this information, or the use, application, adaptation or process of any products described herein.